Research Building
Technology in the Research Building

TECHNOLOGY IN THE LNQE RESEARCH BUILDING

In the LNQE research building, equipment and technologies are made available centrally to employees and students from the working groups and institutes of the Leibniz Research Center LNQE.

Lithography

  • Photolithography for silicon and germanium
    • The cleanroom has an ISO 5 cleanroom class.
    • UV contact and proximity exposure units for round wafers (silicon and germanium) up to 100 mm diameter. Mask size 150*150 mm2 square, minimum line width 900 nm (SÜSS MA 150 and MA 6)
    • UV manual exposure for fragments and small wafers
    • Spin coater with heating plate for round wafers up to 200 mm diameter. Heating up to 200°C (SÜSS DELTA 80 and LABSPIN 8 )
    • Spraycoater AS8
    • Drying oven for vapour deposition on adhesion promoters
    • Hotplate HP8TT
    • HMDS Hotplate VP8 T/BM
    • Plasma Asher for round wafers up to 100 mm diameter, for removing resist residues in O2 plasma (TEPLA 100 and GIGAbatch 360M )
    • Wet benches for ultrasonic development and  resist removal
    • Refrigerators for resist chemistry
  • Photolithography for all other materials
    • The cleanroom has an ISO 5 cleanroom class.
    • UV contact and proximity exposure units for round wafers (compound semiconductors) up to 100 mm diameter. Mask size 150*150 mm^2 square, minimum line width 700 nm (SUSS MA6)
    • Spin coater with heating plate for round wafers up to 100 mm diameter. Heating up to 200°C (SÜSS LABSPIN 6)
    • Wet benches for development and resist removal 
  • Hybrid system for electron beam lithography and scanning electron microscopy (EBL-SEM)

    The Pioneer Two system in LNQE is a hybrid system for electron beam lithography and scanning electron microscopy (EBL-SEM).  It has a maximum acceleration voltage of 30 kV and uses as an electron emitter a thermal field emission (TFE) Schottky-source. The most important parameters are:

    • System type: Pioneer Two from Raith
    • Beam current: 5pA – 20 nA, beam size: < 1,6 nm
    • Inlens detector, dual-detector for secondary and backscattered electrons
    • EDX–detector (Bruker QUANTAX 200) for elements between Z=5 and Z=95
    • Nanolithography resolution: 8 nm
    • Pattern generator speed: 6 MHz
    • Field stitching und overlayer accuracy: 50 nm
    • Stage travel range: 50 x 50 x 25 mm
    • Stage with 360° rotation und 0 – 90°tilt

     

    Use:

  • Scanning electron microscope with e-beam lithography
    • Jeol JSM-5900 SEM
    • E-Beam writing with Raith Elphy plus


Etching

  • Wet benches

    Wet benches for wet-chemical structuring and cleaning of round wafers up to 200 mm diameter (also solar)

    • Piranha and RCA cleaning (SC1, SC2, HF-Dip)
    • Quick dump rinser
    • Spin rinser dryer
    • Wet chemical etching processes in general
  • Reactive Ion Etching (RIE)

    Reactive ion etching for round wafers up to 100 mm diameter, etching under Ar, O2, SF6 and CHF3 (ALCATEL RIE)

    Device for Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) with Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) Source for Cl and F chemistry (OXFORD RIE).

    RIE technique combines isotropic chemical etching and anisotropic physical etching (sputtering).

    • RIE: control on ion energy and ion density, but not independently.
    • ICP: control on ion density
    • ICP-RIE: independent control on ion density and ion energy.

Ion Implantation

  • Ion implanter

    Ion implanter for round wafers up to 300 mm diameter, also Solar, As, P, B, 5-60 keV (VARIAN VIISta HC)

Oxidation and Layer Deposition

  • Vertical furnace system

    Vertical furnace system for wet and dry oxidation of silicon up to 150 mm diameter, up to 1100 °C (CENTROTHERM VERTICOO 200)

    Verticoo 200 vertical furnace system from Centrotherm, oxidation tube, vertical, oxidation dry and moist, moist oxidation with steamer (steam from DI water) or hydrox burner (steam from H2 and O2 burned). Disc size 150 mm and 200 mm, with adapters also 100 mm and "pieces", full handling system, but also manually operable. All oxidation tubes are equipped with a DCE bubbler.

  • Horizontal cluster system

    Horizontal cluster system for silicon up to 200 mm diameter, also solar: (CENTROTHERM EUROPE 2000)

    • Top: SiC tube up to 1285 °C, dry and moist oxidation, moist oxidation with steamer (steam from DI water) or hydrox burner (steam from H2 and O2 burnt).
    • Below: Polysilicon tube, doped and undoped, amorphous and polycrystalline, n and p doped with phosphine and diborane and with oxygen as SIPOS.
    • Below: Nitride tube, stoichiometric (Si3N4) and Si-rich nitride with low stresses, i.e. "low-stress nitrides" can be produced (compressive and tensil layer stress).
    • Below: LPCVD-TEOS tube, low-temperature oxides, with plasma support, temperatures from 450 °C.

    All tubes designed for 200 mm, boats for rectangular solar wafers, round 150 mm and 100 mm as well as 2" and 3" available. All oxidation tubes are equipped with a DCE bubbler to enable high temperature cleaning with chlorine. This achieves good freedom from metal ions.


  • Plasma CVD

    Plasma-CVD for round wafers up to 100 mm diameter, production of oxides, nitrides, poly and germanium, substrate temperature up to 400 °C (OXFORD PLASMALAB 90)

Metallization

  • Evaporation coating system

    Evaporation coating system  for round wafers up to 100 mm diameter, 4-fold crucible and single crucible, co-evaporation (BALZERS BAK 610)


  • Cathode sputtering system

    Cathode sputtering system for round wafers up to 200 mm diameter, DC and AC voltage, co-sputtering of two targets possible, plasma etching, magnetron system (LEYBOLD Z590)

  • Resistive evaporator

    Resistance evaporator "Congo Vac" for vapour deposition of wafers and small pieces with gold, titanium, and other metals (chromium, germanium, silver, aluminium, nickel, lead, indium, palladium, niobium, hafnium, copper)

Annealing

  • Rapid thermal processing

    Rapid thermal processing at normal pressure, for round wafers up to 150 mm diameter, also solar, tempering up to 1100 °C under Ar, O2, N2 or N2H2. (AST SHS 2000 and self-made)

  • Polyimid oven

    Bis 100 mm Durchmesser, Tempern unter Ar, N2 oder im Feinvakuum, bis 950 °C, rezeptgesteuert.

3D Printing

  • Selective laser-induced etching

    LightFab 3D Printer M with IR Laser 1030 nm

    • Subtractive manufacturing of glass substrates using selective laser-induced etching (SLE).
    • Two-step process:
      1. Illumination of the substrate using fs laser to increase the local etchability of the material (LightFab 3D Printer).
      2. Removal of the illuminated structures using KOH solution in an ultrasonic bath.
    • Machinable materials: including fused silica, sapphire, borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, quartz, diamond.
    • 3D structures up to a precision of ~1 µm possible.
    • Suitable for substrates up to 200 mm in diameter. Material height or structure depth is material dependent.
    • The system can additionally and in combination realize laser welding, laser ablation and 2-photon polymerization.

     

    Usage:

Wire bonding

  • Wire bonder

    Wedge & Ball Bonder with motorized z and x axis, Ribbon is also possible.

    It has easy operation with TFT touch screen with direct access and easy setting of all bonding parameters. It can be bonded with gold and aluminum wires (HB16 Wedge & Ball Bonder tpt).

Analytics

  • Spectral ellipsometer

    Spectral ellipsometer for round wafers up to 200 mm diameter (also solar), 250-800 nm wavelength, stage for automated mapping of the surface (SENTECH SE 800)

  • Wafer probe station

    Wafer probe station for round wafers up to 200 mm diameter (also solar), -65 °C to +200 °C sample temperature, digital camera system, 4 measuring needles (CASCADE SUMMIT 11000). With Impedance Analyzer (Agilent 4294A) and Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer (HP 4155).

  • Four-point measuring station

    Four-point measuring station for measuring the layer resistance of a wafer (max. 200 mm diameter, all shapes) according to the measuring principle of four-point measurement. It can be measured manually at selected points on the wafer, or automatically according to a defined pattern and distance.

  • Confocal microscope

    Confocal microscope with Mirau interferometer, up to 1500x magnification, height resolution up to 1 nm (LEICA DCM 3D)

  • Atomic force microscope (AFM)

    Atomic Force Microscope (Nanosurf CoreAFM)

    Easy-to-use AFM for research.

    Measuring modes:

    • Static Force Microscopy
    • Lateral Force Microscopy
    • Standard Spectroscopy
    • Standard Lithography
    • Dynamic Force Microscopy
    • Phase Contrast Microscopy
    • Force Modulation Mode
    • MFM
    • Liquid Imaging
    • „QuickPrescan“, Up to 8 times faster and tip-saving image previews
    • Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM)
    • Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM)
  • Scanning electron microscope with e-beam lithography
    • Jeol JSM-5900 SEM
    • E-Beam writing with Raith Elphy plus
  • Transmission electron microscope (TEM)

    The TEM in the LNQE has an acceleration voltage of 200 kV and as an electron emitter a field effect cathode. The most important parameters are:

    • Device type: TEM Tecnai G2 F20 TMP from FEI
    • 200 kV Field effect FEG
    • OBJECTIVE LENS TYPES: TWIN
    • Oil-free vacuum
    • TEM point resolution: 0.27 nm
    • Information limit: 0.14 nm (measured)
    • STEM resolution: 0.24 nm
    • 1 brightfield and 2 darkfield detectors +1 HAADF detector
    • Tomography +- 70° (possibly up to +- 80°)
    • EDX-Detektor (EDAX Octane T Optima 60 SDD System)

    With this TEM all classical contrast methods are possible: bright field and dark field, diffraction contrast (including weak beam), parallel illumination at all magnifications (especially important for the examination of crystalline samples), TEM and STEM (scanning TEM). Large tilting angles are possible. A special feature of the TEM in the LNQE is the possibility of tomography.

    For sample preparation, a Gatan PIPS 691 ion polishing system, Gatan Dimpler Grinder 656, light microscopes, fume hood and small laboratory equipment are available.

    Contact to the TEM:
    Dr. Fritz Schulze-Wischeler, Schulze-Wischeler@LNQE.uni-hannover.de, Tel.: +49 511 762 16014

  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) for non-destructive determination of chemical composition, primarily of solids or their surfaces.

    Equipment features:

    • PHI Versaprobe III Scanning ESCA
    • Heatable and coolable sample chamber
    • UPS option
    • LEIPS Option
    • Scanning Auger Option
    • Gas Cluster Ion Source



    Usage:

Contact to Technology

Dipl.-Ing. Oliver Kerker
Chief Technical Officer
Address
Schneiderberg 39
30167 Hannover
Building
Room
007
Dipl.-Ing. Oliver Kerker
Chief Technical Officer
Address
Schneiderberg 39
30167 Hannover
Building
Room
007